Recently, we investigated in our laboratory the role of model spherical inclusions under the form of glass beads, of various diameters and volume fraction, introduced onto woven glass reinforcement . Figure 1 shows examples of the microstructure of a plain fabric stack, compared to those of glass beads filled fabrics, as measured by X-Ray tomography. By combining microstructural analysis, flow modeling as well as experimental measurement of saturated and unsaturated permeability, we could highlight the relation between the inclusion size and volume fraction and the intrinsic features of the fabric.
We will show that a simple analysis of the plain fabric mesostructure is sufficient to construct first estimates of the influence of a given volume fraction and size of inclusions on permeability. We also observed a different type of flow front behavior, leading to variations in the magnitude of the ratio of relative to saturated permeability, attributed to a change in the capillary forces acting at the flow front. It should thus also be possible to alter the capillary forces by inserting second phases that have enhanced or reduced wetting through altering the binary profile of pore size distribution and through adequate surface treatment.
In parallel, work focused on the improvement of flow kinetics for infiltration with rather high viscosity fluids, around 15 to 30 Pa.
Modeling of advanced composites: processing and mechanical properties | EPFL
To this end, several fabric producers have focused on the development of high permeability textiles, which contain stitched tows creating large channels. However, in these fabrics with a large dual-scale morphology, the usual flow front behavior, for which capillary forces lead flow in the tows in the case of low Capillary number Ca, ratio of fluid velocity over the product of fluid viscosity and surface tension , and hydrodynamic forces lead flow in the case of high capillary numbers, is not found anymore. Instead, flow channels dominate, and fingering of the flow front is observed even at low Ca.
In turn, progressive filling of the tows must be ensured by bleeding or by inserting a dam reducing the flow speed at the exit of the mold. The presentation will thus highlight these recent results and discuss the role of second phases on flow kinetics and final part quality. We also acknowledge collaboration with L.
Boisse, Ed, Woodhead, Caglar, L. Rolland du Roscoat, E. Boisse Eds , Composite reinforcements for optimum performance. Woodhead Publishing Limited; , Verpoest, Compression of woven reinforcements: a mathematical model', J Reinf. Kelly, A viscoelastic model for the compaction of fibrous materials, J.
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Whitcomb, K. Srirengan, C. Prodromou, S. Verpoest, The method of cells and the mechanical properties of textile. Composite Structures 93 Loix, P. Geindreau, P. Boisse, Woven fabric permeability: from textile deformation to fluid flow mesoscale simulations. Composites Science and Technology 68 — Michaud, Permeability properties of reinforcements in composites, in: P.
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