Phylo-genetics systematics

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SJR is a measure of scientific influence of journals that accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from It measures the scientific influence of the average article in a journal, it expresses how central to the global scientific discussion an average article of the journal is. This indicator counts the number of citations received by documents from a journal and divides them by the total number of documents published in that journal.

The chart shows the evolution of the average number of times documents published in a journal in the past two, three and four years have been cited in the current year. Evolution of the total number of citations and journal's self-citations received by a journal's published documents during the three previous years.

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Journal Self-citation is defined as the number of citation from a journal citing article to articles published by the same journal. Evolution of the number of total citation per document and external citation per document i. International Collaboration accounts for the articles that have been produced by researchers from several countries.

The chart shows the ratio of a journal's documents signed by researchers from more than one country; that is including more than one country address. Not every article in a journal is considered primary research and therefore "citable", this chart shows the ratio of a journal's articles including substantial research research articles, conference papers and reviews in three year windows vs.

Ratio of a journal's items, grouped in three years windows, that have been cited at least once vs.

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The purpose is to have a forum in which general doubts about the processes of publication in the journal, experiences and other issues derived from the publication of papers are resolved. For topics on particular articles, maintain the dialogue through the usual channels with your editor. Darwin's theory of speciation by variation and selection was for some e. But the chief intellectual incentive for systematists to collect in a survey mode was not theory but improved empirical practices of diagnosis and revision.

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The rewards of survey collecting were real and immediate, in terms of quality of work and personal credibility. Those with abundant empirical data got credit not just for the new species they described but also for correcting other taxonomists' mistakes; and they were less at risk of being themselves publicly corrected and discredited. Survey collecting could make less organized modes of gathering seem not just inferior, but irresponsible.

If inner frontiers provided the opportunity for systematists to collect more widely and intensively, it was the intellectual and career rewards of improved practice that provided the impetus to exploit those opportunities in an organized way. Yet the argument is still incomplete. However powerfully drawn by nature's opportunities and the scientific rewards of a data-intensive mode of work, systematists still had to have money and organizational backing to travel and collect en masse-which few individuals possessed.

So most were dependent on financing from national or civic museums or well-to-do private patrons. And that was, at first, a problem. For one thing, museums at the time did not employ curators to collect; curators were expected to stay put and curate. Like amateur naturalists, curators collected during their vacations or in their spare time. The modern role of curator-expeditioner had to be invented for survey to become a general museum practice.

Nor did museums at the time engage in active, planned collecting or sponsor in-house expeditions. Collections were assembled from random gifts, purchase, or exchange of duplicates. The rewards of collecting en masse were hardly as immediate or compelling for museum directors and their bourgeois patrons as they were for scientists. Understandably: in their view, museums existed to inform and entertain the public.

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What benefit was there for museums or the museumgoing public in paying curators to go on junkets to exotic places and fill museums with vast numbers of nearly identical specimens? Yet in the s and early s museum officials and patrons began to do just that, and the reason they did is the third, cultural, element of our model: popular interest in nature and the culture of outdoor recreation.

It is well known that cultural conceptions of nature were changing dramatically in the late nineteenth century. In the United States, preservationists like John Muir and Theodore Roosevelt and institutions like the Sierra Club and the Audubon Society sought to restrain the all-out "war" on nature and to have choice parts of the inner frontiers preserved forever for recreational use.

Phylogenetics Systematics and Evolution of Fishes and Mussels

In literature and the arts, meanwhile, a sentimental and anthropomorphizing view of nature, exemplified by romanticized animal sculpture and nature fables in which animals were endowed with human virtues and vices, gave way to a more naturalistic view of animal life. The nature essay, invented by John Burroughs in the s and widely popularized in the s, was art designed to be scientifically accurate as well as emotionally pleasing.

This same ideal of uniting art and science also inspired the invention of the habitat diorama, which occurred in American and Scandinavian museums around the turn of the century Wonders Diorama builders went to extraordinary lengths to make these objects not just visually beautiful but also true to nature and to the realities of animal behavior and ecology. Conceptions of nature that had been purely cultural-economic, aesthetic-thus became naturalistic: not science exactly, but congruent with a scientific view of nature.

In addition, new and active forms of outdoor recreation evolved in the late nineteenth century that afforded not just new ways of representing nature but also new ways of personally experiencing it that combined pleasure with a naturalistic or scientific interest. Among the more important of these outdoor recreations were sport hunting and fishing, camping and outdoor vacationing, rural perambulating and mountain climbing, summer cottaging in lake and mountain districts, and buying "abandoned farms" as summer vacation homes.

These novel cultural practices, I argue, were the soil in which the practices of survey expeditions flourished. I call these activities "new," but of course they were not quite that. Hunting and fishing, for example, had long been pursued as sport by rural gentry, and by farmers and working folk to put food inexpensively on their tables. Well-to-do families had since the eighteenth century toured rural areas in search of sublime or picturesque sensations.

What was new in the late nineteenth century was the meaning these activities acquired when they were taken up by the striving white-collar middle classes. It was these newcomers who made subsistence or leisure pursuits more naturalistic and sciencelike. Attracted by the pleasures of outdoor recreation but uneasy with the association of leisure with aristocratic idleness and proletarian moral disorder, middle-class nature-goers altered the meaning of these pleasures to square with their values of discipline and self-improvement.

This they did by pursuing outdoor vacationing as a kind of work, which they took to be improving and essential to the work of making money and getting ahead. They worked at play, as the historian Cindy Aron put it, turning leisure into physical and mental recreation see also Bailey The more strenuous forms of outdoor recreation were especially valued by promoters of middle-class vacationing for their physical and moral benefits, as were also instructive pursuits like birding or amateur naturalizing.

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These afforded an experience of nature-going and learning like those that John Burroughs evoked in prose, carried out in environments like those depicted in museum dioramas. A quasi-scientific interest in nature transformed outdoor recreations into suitably moral and improving activities for middle-class family vacationing. It is no accident that enthusiasm for these culturally charged modes of nature-going coincided with the period of inner frontiers and with the survey mode in systematics.

Inner frontiers, wild yet accessible, were ideal places for the strenuous but not too arduous or risky or expensive forms of family vacationing-working at play. This moralized form of outdoor recreation, like natural history survey, was a form of land use specific to inner frontiers. Nor was it happenstance that middle-class nature-going also sustained survey science. For one thing, it enlarged the pool of sympathizers with-and potential recruits to-survey science.

The practices of recreational hunting, camping, and naturalizing were identical in many respects to those of survey science: for example, knowing where to find, recognize, and observe or catch animals; and how to travel cross-country and live outdoors in safety and relative comfort. In effect, recreational nature-going constituted a pleasurable and unwitting apprenticeship to the work of scientific collecting.

Of course only a tiny fraction of recreationists ever became career naturalists. However, recreational nature-going also predisposed its devotees to take part indirectly in survey science, by supporting natural history museums or by underwriting surveys and expeditions.

Outdoor culture provided wherewithal and created infrastructure: that was the vital connection. Well-to-do families could contribute to survey science by sponsoring expeditions-and, if they so desired, by going along as hunter-collectors-without having to devote their lives to doing science.

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Recreational nature-going made survey systematics culturally familiar and understandable to the sector of the public that had the inclination and the means to participate in some way large or small. Those who took an active part in expeditions found them a pleasurable and educational blend of science and vacation: it was perhaps the ultimate way to work at play. Evidence of the connection between expeditioning and nature-going is everywhere.

Hart Merriam subsidized his own large-scale collecting as an amateur naturalist before he learned to use the politics of government patronage to scale up a personal obsession into a national faunal survey. Annie Alexander, who founded and underwrote the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology and its program of field collecting, was a wealthy sugar heiress and an avid big-game hunter. She needed a public repository for her specimen-trophies because of legal restrictions on private hunting but quickly found a higher aim in the scientific program of her director, Joseph Grinnell.

Alexander Ruthven ran the University of Michigan Museum and its program of expeditions with the modest financial support of a group of local amateur naturalists and collectors. Civic museums likewise depended on the patronage of outdoorsy families for their global collecting projects.


It was not the prospect of aiding science that first attracted patrons, though; rather it was the desire to assist in building habitat dioramas. It turned out that state-of-the-art dioramas could not be built with materials present in museum storerooms. Their spectacular illusionistic effects required fresh specimens of the highest taxidermic quality, as well as accessory material dirt, rocks, branches, plants and paintings or photographs gathered or made in the very places that the dioramas were to depict. And these materials had to be gathered by curators and preparators, because only they knew exactly what was required. If few museum patrons could see the point of vast scientific collections, many were eager to pay for diorama expeditions. Once in the field, of course, curators and systematists also collected en masse for study collections, and it was not long before expeditions were as much or more for science than for exhibit making.

In this way museums were drawn into the business of expeditioning, and curators' professional job descriptions were enlarged to include fieldwork. It was dioramas, initially, that connected museum science to the culture of outdoor recreation. Combining pleasure and science, they embodied the ideal of working at play and afforded museumgoers virtual-and sometimes actual-trips to the inner frontiers where systematists labored to record and order nature's abundance.

The culture of nature-going, conjoined with an exact science of systematics in a landscape of inner frontiers, produced the third wave of species discovery. Inner frontiers gave systematists physical access to places of species abundance, and supported a naturalistic culture of outdoor recreation, which afforded systematists the means to pursue their opportunities and to reap the professional rewards of improved practice.

A dynamic of change, which started small and might at any point have stalled, developed into a sustained wave of discovery. Because this model was devised for the particular case of North American naturalists, the question will arise, Does it apply as well to others?