Twentieth Century Advertising

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Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth. Journal of Modern Greek Studies. American Quarterly. Technology and Culture. With the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. Pop-up, Flash , banner, pop-under, advergaming , and email advertisements all of which are often unwanted or spam in the case of email are now commonplace.

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Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising, some people may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing importance of the niche market using niche or targeted ads.

Also brought about by the Internet and the theory of the long tail , advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient way to deliver a message was to blanket the largest mass market audience possible. Among others, Comcast Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this method in their video on demand menus.

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  • These advertisements are targeted to a specific group and can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a particular business or practice, from their home. This causes the viewer to become proactive and actually choose what advertisements they want to view. Different colours play major roles when it comes to marketing strategies, for example, seeing the blue can promote a sense of calmness and gives a sense of security which is why many social networks such as Facebook use blue in their logos.

    Google AdSense is an example of niche marketing. Google calculates the primary purpose of a website and adjusts ads accordingly; it uses keywords on the page or even in emails to find the general ideas of topics disused and places ads that will most likely be clicked on by viewers of the email account or website visitors. The concept of crowdsourcing has given way to the trend of user-generated advertisements. User-generated ads are created by people, as opposed to an advertising agency or the company themselves, often resulting from brand sponsored advertising competitions.

    The resulting ads were among the most-watched and most-liked Super Bowl ads. This trend has given rise to several online platforms that host user-generated advertising competitions on behalf of a company. Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic, export, international, multi-national, and global. For global advertisers , there are four, potentially competing, business objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice, developing economies of scale in the creative process, maximising local effectiveness of ads, and increasing the company's speed of implementation.

    Born from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising executions: exporting executions, producing local executions, and importing ideas that travel. Advertising research is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or region.

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    Once one knows what works in an ad, that idea or ideas can be imported by any other market. Market research measures, such as Flow of Attention , Flow of Emotion and branding moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures are based on the visual, not verbal, elements of the ad.

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    History of advertising - Wikipedia

    A prime example of this messaging technique is advertising campaigns to promote international travel. While advertising foreign destinations and services may stem from the typical goal of increasing revenue by drawing more tourism, some travel campaigns carry the additional or alternative intended purpose of promoting good sentiments or improving existing ones among the target audience towards a given nation or region.

    By depicting their destinations, airlines, and other services in a favorable and pleasant light, countries market themselves to populations abroad in a manner that could mitigate prior public impressions. In the realm of advertising agencies , continued industry diversification has seen observers note that "big global clients don't need big global agencies any more". The ability to record shows on digital video recorders such as TiVo allow watchers to record the programs for later viewing, enabling them to fast forward through commercials.

    Additionally, as more seasons of pre-recorded box sets are offered for sale of television programs; fewer people watch the shows on TV. However, the fact that these sets are sold , means the company will receive additional profits from these sets. To counter this effect, a variety of strategies have been employed.

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    Many advertisers have opted for product placement on TV shows like Survivor. Other strategies include integrating advertising with internet-connected program guidess EPGs , advertising on companion devices like smartphones and tablets during the show, and creating mobile apps for TV programs. Additionally, some like brands have opted for social television sponsorship. The emerging technology of drone displays has recently been used for advertising purposes.

    In recent years there have been several media literacy initiatives, and more specifically concerning advertising, that seek to empower citizens in the face of media advertising campaigns. Advertising education has become popular with bachelor, master and doctorate degrees becoming available in the emphasis. Advertising is at the front of delivering the proper message to customers and prospective customers.

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    The purpose of advertising is to inform the consumers about their product and convince customers that a company's services or products are the best, enhance the image of the company, point out and create a need for products or services, demonstrate new uses for established products, announce new products and programs, reinforce the salespeople's individual messages, draw customers to the business, and to hold existing customers.

    Sales promotions are another way to advertise. Sales promotions are double purposed because they are used to gather information about what type of customers one draws in and where they are, and to jump start sales. Sales promotions include things like contests and games, sweepstakes, product giveaways, samples coupons, loyalty programs, and discounts.

    The ultimate goal of sales promotions is to stimulate potential customers to action. While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, [27] it is not without social costs. Unsolicited commercial e-mail and other forms of spam have become so prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as being a financial burden on internet service providers.

    One of the most controversial criticisms of advertisement in the present day is that of the predominance of advertising of foods high in sugar, fat, and salt specifically to children. Critics claim that food advertisements targeting children are exploitive and are not sufficiently balanced with proper nutritional education to help children understand the consequences of their food choices. Additionally, children may not understand that they are being sold something, and are therefore more impressionable. Cosmetic and health industry are the ones which exploited the highest and created reasons of concern.

    There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest by regulating the content and the influence of advertising. Some examples include restrictions for advertising alcohol , tobacco or gambling imposed in many countries, as well as the bans around advertising to children , which exist in parts of Europe.

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    Advertising regulation focuses heavily on the veracity of the claims and as such, there are often tighter restrictions placed around advertisements for food and healthcare products. The advertising industries within some countries rely less on laws and more on systems of self-regulation. The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal, decent, honest and truthful'. Some self-regulatory organizations are funded by the industry, but remain independent, with the intent of upholding the standards or codes like the Advertising Standards Authority in the UK.

    Some governments restrict the languages that can be used in advertisements, but advertisers may employ tricks to try avoiding them. In France for instance, advertisers sometimes print English words in bold and French translations in fine print to deal with Article of the Toubon Law limiting the use of English. The advertising of pricing information is another topic of concern for governments.

    In the United States for instance, it is common for businesses to only mention the existence and amount of applicable taxes at a later stage of a transaction. Various competing models of hierarchies of effects attempt to provide a theoretical underpinning to advertising practice. The marketing mix was proposed by professor E. Jerome McCarthy in the s. Product is the first P representing the actual product.

    Price represents the process of determining the value of a product. Place represents the variables of getting the product to the consumer such as distribution channels, market coverage and movement organization.